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The polar PAC network - Publications PDF Print E-mail
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Below, please find a list of publications on different aspects of polar PACs.
Note that the publications are grouped in several categories relevant for the polar-PAC network.

Analysis of polar PACs
Bandowe B. A. M., Wilcke W.(2010) Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Oxygen-Containing Derivatives and Metabolites in Soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 39(4): 1349-58.
Bataineh M., Luebcke-Von Varel U., Hayen H., Brack W. (2010) HPLC/APCI-FTICR-MS as a tool for identification of partial polar mutagenic compounds in effect-directed analysis. Journal of the American society for mass spectrometry.21(6): 1016-1027.
Grosse S., Letzel T. (2007) Liquid chromatography / atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry with post-column liquid mixing for the efficient determination of partially oxidized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal of Chromatography A , 1139: 75-83.
Letzel T., PöschlU., Rosenberg E., Grasserbauer M., Niessner R.(1999) In-source fragmentation of partially oxidized mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 13: 2456-2468.
Letzel T., Rosenberg E., Wissiack R., Grasserbauer M., Niessner R. (1999) Separation and identification of polar degradation products of benzo[a]pyrene with ozone by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization – mass spectrometry after optimized column chromatographic clean-up. Journal of Chromatography A, 855: 501-514.
Letzel, T., Poschl U., Wissiack R., Rosenberg E., Grasserbauer M. and Niessner R. 2001. Phenyl-modified reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry: A universal method for the analysis of partially oxidized aromatic hydrocarbons. Anal. Chem. 73, 1634-1645.
Lundstedt, S., Haglund P. and Oberg L. 2006. Simultaneous extraction and fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives in soil using selective pressurized liquid extraction. Anal. Chem. 78, 2993-3000.
Meyer, S., Cartellieri S. and Steinhart H. 1999. Simultaneous determination of PAHs, hetero-PAHs (N, S, O), and their degradation products in creosote-contaminated soils. Method development, validation, and application to hazardous waste sites. Anal. Chem. 71, 4023-4029.
Mundt, M; Hollender, J. 2005. Simultaneous determination of NSO-heterocycles, homocycles and their metabolites in groundwater of tar oil contaminated sites using LC with diode array UV and fluorescence detection. J. Chromatogr A 1065 (2): 211-218.
Niederer, M. 1998. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and substitutes (nitro-, oxy-PAHs) in urban soil and airborne particulate by GC-MS and NCI-MS/MS. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 5, 209-216.
Walgraeve, C., Demeestere, K., De Wispelaere P., Dewulf J., Lintelmann J., Fischer K., Van Langenhove, H. 2012. Selective accurate.mass.based analysis of 11 oxy-PAHs on atmospheric particulate matter by pressurized liquid extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and magnetic sector mass spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem 402:1697-1711.
Zdrahal, Z., Karasek P., Lojkova L., Buckova M., Vecera Z. and Vejrosta J. 2000. Pressurised liquid extraction of ketones of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil. J. Chromatogr. A 893, 201-206.
Occurrence of polar PACs at contaminated sites
Bandowe B. A. M., Shukurov N., Kersten M., Wilcke W.(2010) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygen-containing derivatives (OPAHs) in soils from the Angeren industrial area, Uzbekistan. Environmental Pollution 158: 2888-2899.
Blotevogel, J; Reineke, AK; Hollender, J; Held, T. 2008. Identification of NSO-heterocyclic priority substances for investigating and monitoring creosote-contaminated sites. Grundwasser 13 (3): 147-157. (In German)
Brooks, L.R., Hughes T.J., Claxton L.D., Austern B., Brenner R. and Kremer F. 1998. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical identification of mutagens in bioremediated soils. Environ. Health Perspect. 106, 1435-1440.
Eriksson, M., Dalhammar G. and Borg-Karlsson A.K. 2000. Biological degradation of selected hydrocarbons in an old PAH/creosote contaminated soil from a gas work site. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 53, 619-626.
Johansen, SS, Hansen AB, Mosbæk H and Arvin E. (1997) Identification of Heteroaromatic and other Organic Compounds in Ground Water at Creosote-Contaminated Sites in Denmark. Ground Wat. Monitor. Rem. 17(2):106-115.
Lundstedt, S., Haglund P. and Öberg L.G. 2003. Degradation and formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds during bio-slurry treatment of an aged gasworks soil. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22, 1413-1420.
Lundstedt S, White PA, Lemieux CL, Lynes KD, Lambert IB, Öberg L, Haglund P, Tysklind M (2007) Sources, fate and toxic hazards of oxy-PAHs at PAH-contaminated sites. Ambio, 36(6):475-485.
Matscheko N, Lundstedt S, Svensson L, Harju M, Tysklind M (2002) Accumulation and elimination of 16 polycyclic aromatic compounds in the earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 21(8), 1724-1729.
Meyer, S., Cartellieri S. and Steinhart H. 1999. Simultaneous determination of PAHs, hetero-PAHs (N, S, O), and their degradation products in creosote-contaminated soils. Method development, validation, and application to hazardous waste sites. Anal. Chem. 71, 4023-4029.
Neuwoehner, J; Reineke, AK; Hollender, J; Eisentraeger, A. 2009. Ecotoxicity of quinoline and hydroxylated derivatives and their occurrence in groundwater of a tar-contaminated field site. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 72 (3): 819-827.
Niederer, M. 1998. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and substitutes (nitro-, oxy-PAHs) in urban soil and airborne particulate by GC-MS and NCI-MS/MS. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 5, 209-216
Reineke, AK; Goen, T; Preiss, A; Hollender, J. 2007. Quinoline and derivatives at a tar oil contaminated site: Hydroxylated products as indicator for natural attenuation?. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (15): 5314-5322.

Reineke A.-K., Preiss A., Elend M., Hollender J. (2008) Detection of methylquinoline transformation products in microcosm experiments and in tar oil contaminated groundwater using LC-NMR. Chemopshere 70; 2118-2126.
Saponaro, S., Bonomo L., Petruzzelli G., Romele L. and Barbafieri M. 2002. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) slurry phase bioremediation of a manufacturing gas plant (MGP) site aged soil. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 135, 219-236.

Toxicity of polar PACs
Alexander, R.R., Tang J.X. and Alexander M. 2002. Genotoxicity is unrelated to total concentration of priority carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils undergoing biological treatment. J. Environ. Qual. 31, 150-154.
Belkin, S., Stieber M., Tiehm A., Frimmel F.H., Abeliovich A., Werner P. and Ulitzur S. 1994. Toxicity and Genotoxicity Enhancement During Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation. Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual. 9, 303-309.
Bleeker E.A.J., Van der Geest H.G., Klamer H.J.C., de Voogt P., Wind E., Kraak M.H.S. (1999) Toxic and genotoxic effects of azaarenes: isomers and metabolites. Polycycl. Arom. Comp. 13(2): 191-203.
Bleeker E.A.J., Wiegman S., de Voogt P., Kraak M.H.S., Leslie H.A., de Haas E.M., Admiraal W. (2002) Toxicity of Azaarenes - A Review. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 173: 39-84
Bolton, J.L., Trush M.A., Penning T.M., Dryhurst G. and Monks T.J. 2000. Role of quinones in toxicology. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13, 135-160.
Brack, W., Altenburger R., Kuster E., Meissner B., Wenzel K.D. and Schuurmann G. 2003. Identification of toxic products of anthracene photomodification in simulated sunlight. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22, 2228-2237.
Chesis, P.L., Levin D.E., Smith M.T., Ernster L. and Ames B.N. 1984. Mutagenicity of quinones: Pathways of metabolic activation and detoxification. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 1696-1700.
Durant, J.L., Busby W.F., Lafleur A.L., Penman B.W. and Crespi C.L. 1996. Human cell mutagenicity of oxygenated, nitrated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with urban aerosols. Mutat. Res.-Genet. Toxicol. 371, 123-157.
Huang, X.D., Dixon D.G. and Greenberg B.M. 1993. Impacts of UV Radiation and Photomodification on the Toxicity of PAHs to the Higher Plant Lemna gibba (Duckweed). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12, 1067-1077.
Huang, X.D., Dixon D.G. and Greenberg B.M. 1995. Increased Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Toxicity Following Their Photomodification in Natural Sunlight - Impacts on the Duckweed Lemna-Gibba l G-3. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 32, 194-200.
Kubatova, A., Dronen L.C., Picklo M.J. and Hawthorne S.B. 2006. Midpolarity and nonpolar wood smoke particulate matter fractions deplete glutathione in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 19, 255-261.
Kumagai, Y., Koide S., Taguchi K., Endo A., Nakai Y., Yoshikawa T. and Shimojo N. 2002. Oxidation of proximal protein sulfhydryls by phenanthraquinone, a component of diesel exhaust particles. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15, 483-489.
Kurihara, R., Shiraishi F., Tanaka N. and Hashimoto S. 2005. Presence and estrogenicity of anthracene derivatives in coastal Japanese waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 24, 1984-1993.
Lampi, M.A., Gurska J., McDonald K.I., Xie F., Huang X.D., Dixon D.G. and Greenberg B.M. 2006. Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Daphnia magna: ultraviolet-mediated effects and the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon photoproducts. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25, 1079-1087.
Leary, J.A., Lafleur A.L., Liber H.L. and Blemann K. 1983. Chemical and toxicologic characterization of fossil fuel combustion product Phenalen-1-one. Anal. Chem. 55, 758-761.
Lemieux CL, Lynes KD, White PA, Lundstedt S, Öberg L, Lambert IB (2009) Mutagenicity of an aged gasworks soil during bioslurry treatment. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 50(5):404-412.

Lemieux CL, Lambert IB, Lundstedt S, Tysklind M, White PA (2008) Mutagenic hazards of complex PAH mixtures in contaminated soil. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27(4), 978-990.
Leon-Paumen M., de Voogt P., van Gestel C.A.M., Kraak M.H.S. (2009) Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates: generalizations and exceptions. Science of the Total Environment 407: 4605-4609
Machala, M., Ciganek M., Blaha L., Minksova K. and Vondrack J. 2001. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and estrogenic activities of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and azaarenes originally identified in extracts of river sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 2736-2743.
Mallakin, A., McConkey B.J., Miao G.B., McKibben B., Snieckus V., Dixon D.G. and Greenberg B.M. 1999. Impacts of structural photomodification on the toxicity of environmental contaminants: Anthracene photooxidation products. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 43, 204-212.
Mattsson Å, Lundstedt S, Stenius U (2009) Exposure of HepG2 cells to low levels of PAH-containing extracts from contaminated soils results in unpredictable genotoxic stress responses. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 50(4):337-348.
McConkey, B.J., Duxbury C.L., Dixon D.G. and Greenberg B.M. 1997. Toxicity of a PAH photooxidation product to the bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum and the duckweed Lemna gibba: Effects of phenanthrene and its primary photoproduct, phenanthrenequinone. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16, 892-899.
Moller, M., Hagen I. and Ramdahl T. 1985. Mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) identified in source emissions and ambient air. Mutat. Res. 149-156.
Morelli, I.S., Vecchioli G.I., Del Panno M.T. and Painceira M.T. 2001. Effect of petrochemical sludge concentrations on changes in mutagenic activity during soil bioremediation process. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 2179-2183.
Pitts, J.N., Lokensgard D.M., Harger W., Fisher T.S., Mejia V., Schuler J.J., Scorziell G.M. and Katzenstein Y.A. 1982. Mutagens in diesel exhaust particulate identification and direct activities of 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, 1-nitropyrene and 5H-phenanthro[4,5-bcd]pyran-5-one. Mutat. Res. 103, 241-249.
Ren, L., Zeiler L.F., Dixon D.G. and Greeberg B.M. 1996. Photoinduced effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Brassica napus (Canola) during germination and early seedling development. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 33, 73-80.
Sakai, M., Yoshida D. and Mizusaki S. 1985. Mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and quinones on Salmonella typhimurium TA97. Mutat. Res. 156, 61-67.
Sasek, V., Bhatt M., Cajthaml T., Malachova K. and Lednicka D. 2003. Compost-mediated removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 44, 336-342.
Shimada, H., Oginuma M., Hara A. and Imamura Y. 2004. 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, a component of diesel exhaust particles, inhibits the reduction of 4-benzoylpyridine and all-trans-retinal and mediates superoxide formation through its redox cycling in pig heart. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 17, 1145-1150.
Winters, K., Batterton J.C. and van Baalen C. 1977. Phenalen-1-one: Occurrence in a fuel oil and toxicity to microalgae. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11, 270-272.
Xie, F., Koziar S.A., Lampi M.A., Dixon D.G., Warren N.P., Borgmann U., Huang X.D. and Greenberg B.M. 2006. Assessment of the toxicity of mixtures of copper, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and phenanthrene to Daphnia magna: evidence for a reactive oxygen mechanism. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25, 613-622.
Zhu, H., Li Y.B. and Trush M.A. 1995. Characterization of Benzo[A]Pyrene Quinone-Induced Toxicity to Primary Cultured Bone-Marrow Stromal Cells from Dba/2 Mice - Potential Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 130, 108-120.

Formation of polar PACs and accumulation during PAH-transformation
Andersson, B.E.and Henrysson T. 1996. Accumulation and degradation of dead-end metabolites during treatment of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with five strains of white-rot fungi. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 46, 647-652.
Andersson, B.E., Lundstedt S., Tornberg K., Schnurer Y., Öberg L.G. and Mattiasson B. 2003. Incomplete degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil inoculated with wood-rotting fungi, and their effect on the indigenous soil bacteria. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22, 1238-1243.
Arias L., Bauzá J., Tobella J., Vila J., Grifoll M. (2007) A microcosm system and an analytical protocol to assess PAH degradation and metabolite formation in soils. Biodegradation 19(3): 425-434.

Biache, C., Mansuy-Huault L., Faure P., Munier-Lamy C., Leyval C. (2008). Effects of thermal desorption on the composition of two coking plant soils: Impact on solvent extractable organic compounds and metal bioavailability. Environmental Pollution 156: 671-677.
Biache, C., Ghislain T., Faure P., Mansuy-Huault L. (2011). Low temperature oxidation of a coking plant soil organic matter and its major constituents: An experimental approach to simulate a long term evolution. Journal of hazardous Materials 188: 221-230.
Cerniglia, C.E. 1992. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Biodegradation 3, 351-368.
Cerniglia, C.E. 1997. Fungal metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Past, present and future applications in bioremediation. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 19, 324-333.
de Voogt P., Bleeker E.A.J., van Vlaardingen P.L.A., Fernández A., Slobodník J., Wever H., Kraak M.H.S. (1999) Formation and identification of azaarene trans­form­ation products from aquatic invertebrate metabolism. J. Chromatogr. B 724(2): 265-274
Grifoll M., Selifonov S.A., Gatlin C.V., Chapman P.J. (1995) Actions of versatile fluorene-degrading bacterial isolate on polycyclic aromatic compounds. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61(10): 3711-3723.

Kanaly, R.A. and Harayama S. 2000. Biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 182, 2059-2067.
Koeber, R., Bayona J.M. and Niessner R. 1997. Analysis of ozonolysis products of benzo[a]pyrene with capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 66, 313-325.
Kochany, J. and Maguire R.J. 1994. Abiotic transformations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic nitrogen heterocycles in aquatic environments. Sci. Total Environ. 144, 17-31.
Kotzias, D. and Brussol C. 1999. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Fresenius Environ. Bull. 8, 518-522.
Lee, B.D., Hosomi M. and Murakami A. 1998. Fenton oxidation with ethanol to degrade anthracene into biodegradable 9,10-anthraquinon: A pretreatment method for anthracene-contaminated soil. Water Sci. Technol. 38, 91-97.
Lee, B.D.and Hosomi M. 2001. A hybrid Fenton oxidation-microbial treatment for soil highly contaminated with benz(a)anthracene. Chemosphere 43, 1127-1132.
López Z., Vila J., Ortega-Calvo J.-J., Grifoll M. (2008) Simultaneous biodegradation of creosote-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 78:165-172.

Lundstedt, S., Persson Y. and Oberg L. 2006. Transformation of PAHs during ethanol-Fenton treatment of an aged gasworks' soil. Chemosphere 65, 1288-1294.
Mallakin, A., Dixon D.G. and Greenberg B.M. 2000. Pathway of anthracene modification under simulated solar radiation. Chemosphere 40, 1435-1441.
Meyer, S.and Steinhart H. 2001. Fate of PAHs and hetero-PAHs during biodegradation in a model soil/compost-system: Formation of extractable metabolites. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 132, 215-231.
Sutherland JB, Rafii F, Khan AA, Cerniglia CE. 1995. Mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. In: Series in Ecological and Applied Microbiology. Microbial Transformation and Degradation of Toxic Organic Chemicals. Young, L.Y. and Cerniglia, C.E. (eds.). Wiley-Liss Inc, New York, pp 269-306.
Vila J., Grifoll M. (2009) Actions of mycobacterium sp. Strain AP1 on the saturated and aromatic-hydrocarbon fraction of fuel oil in a marine medium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75(19): 6232-6239.

Wischmann, H.and Steinhart H. 1997. The formation of PAH oxidation products in soils and soil/compost mixtures. Chemosphere 35, 1681-1698.
Wunder, T., Marr J., Kremer S., Sterner O. and Anke H. 1997. 1-methoxypyrene and 1,6-dimethoxypyrene: Two novel metabolites in fungal metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Arch. Microbiol. 167, 310-316.
Yao, J.J., Huang Z.H. and Masten S.J. 1998. The ozonation of pyrene: Pathway and product identification. Water Res. 32, 3001-3012.
Yao, J.J., Huang Z.H. and Masten S.J. 1998. The ozonation of benz[a]anthracene: Pathway and product identification. Water Res. 32, 3235-3244.
Yu, H. 2002. Environmental Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Photochemistry and Phototoxicity. J. Environ. Sci. Health C20, 149-183.


Mobility and fate of polar PACs in soil systems

Goldfarb J.L., Suuberg E.M. (2008) Vapor pressures and thermodynamics of oxygen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured using Knudsen effusion. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27(6):1244-1249.
Lundstedt (2009) Occurrence and mobility of oxy-PAHs at contaminated sites (manuscript in preparation)
Novoszad M., Gerzabek M.H., Haberhauer G., Jakusch M., Lischka H., Tunega D., Kirchmann H. (2005) Sorption of naphthalene derivatives to soils from a long-term field experiment. Chemosphere 59 (5): 639-47.
Novoszad, M., Gerzabek M.H., Lischka H., Haberhauer G., Jakusch M. (2007) Sorption of naphthalene derivatives on to soils from a long-term field experiment: A particle size fractionation and extraction study. European Journal of Soil Science 58: 26-33.
Schlanges I., Meyer D., Palm W.-U., Ruck W. (2008) Identification, quantification and distribution of PAC-metabolites, heterocyclic PAC and substituted PAC in groundwater samples of tar-contaminated sites from Germany. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 28: 320-338.

Scmidt S.E., Christensen J.H., Johnsen A.R. (2010) Fungal PAH-metabolites resist PAH mineralization by soil microorganisms. Environmental Science & Technology 44: 1677-1682.
Weigand H., Totsche K.U.,Kögel-Knabner I., Annweiler E., Richnow H.H., Michaelis W. (2002) Fate of anthracene in contaminated soil: transport and biochemical transformation under unsaturated flow conditions. European Journal of Soil Science 53: 71-81.
Winkler P., Novoszad M., Gerzabek M.H., Haberhauer G., Tunega D., Lischka H. (2007) Interaction of naphthalene derivatives with soil: an experimental and theoretical case study." European Journal of Soil Science 58: 967-77.

Polar PACs in other environmental media
Adelhelm C., Niessner R., Pöschl U., Letzel T. (2008) Analysis of large oxygenated and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed under simulated diesel engine exhaust conditions (by compound fingerprints with SPE/LC-API-MS).
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 391: 2599-2608.
Akimoto, Y., Aoki T., Nito S. and Inouye Y. 1997. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from MSW incinerator fly ash. Chemosphere 34, 263-273.
Albinet, A., Leoz-Garziandia E., Budzinski H. and ViIlenave E. 2006. Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and on natural ambient air samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionisation. J. Chromatogr. A 1121, 106-113.
Allen, J.O., Dookeran N.M., Taghizadeh K., Lafleur A.L., Smith K.A. and Sarofim A.F. 1997. Measurement of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with a size-segregated urban aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31, 2064-2070.
Alsberg, T., Stenberg U., Westerholm R., Strandell M., Rannug U., Sundvall A., Romert L., Bernson V., Pettersson B., Toftgard R., Franzen B., Jansson M., Gustafsson J.A., Egeback K.E. and Tejle G. 1985. Chemical and biological characterization of organic material from gasoline exhaust particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 43-50.
Bodzek, D., Janoszka B., Dobosz C., Warzecha L. and Bodzek M. 1997. Determination of polycyclic aromatic compounds and heavy metals in sludges from biological sewage treatment plants. J. Chromatogr. A 774, 177-192.
Casellas, M., Fernandez P., Bayona J.M. and Solanas A.M. 1995. Bioassay-directed chemical-analysis of genotoxic components in urban airborne particulate matter from Barcelona (Spain). Chemosphere 30, 725-740.
Castells, P., Santos F.J. and Gaiceran M.T. 2003. Development of a sequential supercritical fluid extraction method for the analysis of nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban aerosols. J. Chromatogr. A 1010, 141-151.
Cho, A.K., Di Stefano E., You Y., Rodriguez C.E., Schmitz D.A., Kumagai Y., Miguel A.H., Eiguren-Fernandez A., Kobayashi T., Avol E. and Froines J.R. 2004. Determination of four quinones in diesel exhaust particles, SRM 1649a, an atmospheric PM2.5. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 68-81.
Choudhury, D.R. 1982. Characterization of polycyclic ketones and quinones in diesel emission particulates by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 102-106.
de Voogt P., Laane R.W.P.M. (2009) Assessment of azaarenes and azaarones (oxidized azaarene derivatives) in the Dutch Coastal Zone of the North Sea. Chemosphere 76: 1067–1074
Durant, J.L., Lafleur A.L., Plummer E.F., Taghizadeh K., Busby W.F. and Thilly W.G. 1998. Human lymphoblast mutagens in urban airborne particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 1894-1906.
Fernandez, P., Grifoll M., Solanas A.M., Bayona J.M. and Albaiges J. 1992. Bioassay-directed chemical analysis of genotoxic components in coastal sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 817-829.
Grifoll, M., Solanas A.M. and Bayona J.M. 1992. Bioassay-directed chemical characterization of genotoxic agents in the dissolved and particulate water phases of the Besos and Llobregat rivers (Barcelona, Spain). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 23, 19-25.
Grifoll, M., Solanas A.M. and Bayona J.M. 1990. Characterization of genotoxic components in sediments by mass-spectrometric techniques combined with salmonella microsome test. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 19, 175-184.
Hannigan, M.P., Cass G.R., Penman B.W., Crespi C.L., Lafleur A.L., Busby W.F., Thilly W.G. and Simoneit B.R.T. 1998. Bioassay directed chemical analysis of Los Angeles airborne particulate matter using a human cell mutagenicity assay. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 3502-3514.
Hogenboom A.C., van Leerdam J.A., de Voogt P. (2009) Accurate mass screening and identification of emerging contaminants in environmental samples by liquid chromatography-LTQ FT Orbitrap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr. A 1216: 510–519
Kallio, M., Hyotylainen T., Lehtonen M., Jussila M., Hartonen K., Shimmo M. and Riekkola M.L. 2003. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in the analysis of urban aerosols. J. Chromatogr. A 101: 251-260.
Kurihara, R., Shiraishi F., Tanaka N. and Hashimoto S. 2005. Presence and estrogenicity of anthracene derivatives in coastal Japanese waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 24, 1984-1993.
König, J., Balfanz E., Funcke W. and Romanowski T. 1983. Determination of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborn particulate matter by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 55, 599-603.
Machala, M., Ciganek M., Blaha L., Minksova K. and Vondrack J. 2001. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and estrogenic activities of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and azaarenes originally identified in extracts of river sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 2736-2743.
McKinney, R.A., Pruell R.J. and Burgess R.M. 1999. Ratio of the concentration of anthraquinone to anthracene in coastal marine sediments. Chemosphere 38, 2415-2430.
Mosi, A.A., Reimer K.J. and Eigendorf G.K. 1997. Analysis of polyaromatic quinones in a complex environmental matrix using gas chromatography ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta 44, 985-1001.
Moyano, E.andGalceran M.T. 1997. Determination of oxy-, nitro- and hydroxy- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric aerosol samples. Quim. Anal. (Barcelona) 16, 159-164.
Nicol, S., Dugay J. and Hennion M.C. 2001. Determination of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds in airborne particulate organic matter using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Chromatographia 53, S464-S469.
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