01直接引语和间接引语的概述在直接引用别人的原话时，被引用的句子称为直接引语。在用直接引语时，引语前后都要加引号。引导引语的动词称为引用动词，如：say, ask, answer, reply等。引用动词多数放在后面，有时放在前面，间或插在引语中间。在把引用动词放在后面时，有时主语和动词位置可以颠倒(特别是主语较长时)。例如：“who is it?” ann shouted. “i never eat meat,” she explained. “sit up,” he commanded, “and hold out your hands.” 当用自己的话转述别人的话时，被转述的部分称为间接引语。这时被引语部分常常是引用动词的宾语。在多数情况下，引语都由连词that引导，但在say, tell等词后可以省略。例如：he said (that) he had lost the bag. tell her i am out. 把直接引语变成间接引语时，要改变的内容021. 要根据意思改变人称。 2. 要根据时态呼应的原则把时态加以调整。 3. 指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词也需要作必要的变动。03各种句式变间接引语时要发生的变化1. 陈述句直接引语如果是陈述句，变为间接引语时，用连词that引导 (that可省略)。例如：tony said to me, “ i will leave this book in your desk.” →tony told me (that) he would leave that book in my desk. 如果直接引语是表示建议、要求、推测、判断的陈述句，变为间接引语时，可以变为动词不定式、v-ing形式或含虚拟语气的宾语从句。例如：jane said to tony, “you’d better ask your friends for some advice.” →jane advised tony to ask his friends for some advice. →jane suggested tony asking his friends for some advice. →jane advised/suggested that tony (should) ask his friends for some advice. 2. 一般疑问句、选择疑问句和反意疑问句直接引语是一般疑问句，变为间接引语时，要用连词whether或if引导，同时把原来的疑问句语序变为陈述句语序。例如：the woman asked me, “can you show me the way to the nearest bookstore?” →the woman asked me whether/if i could show her the way to the nearest bookstore. 直接引语是选择疑问句，变为间接引语时，通常用连词whether引导，同时把原来的疑问句语序变为陈述句语序。例如：my friend asked, “will you come here by bus or by bike?” →my friend asked whether i would go there by bus or by bike. 直接引语是反意疑问句，变为间接引语时，常由连词whether或if引导，同时把原来的疑问句语序变为陈述句语序。例如：he asked, “this math problem is very difficult, isn’t it? →he asked whether/if that math problem was very difficult. 3. 特殊疑问句直接引语是特殊疑问句，变为间接引语时，仍用原来的疑问词引导，同时把原来的疑问句语序变为陈述句语序。例如： she asked, “where do you come from, tom?” →she asked tom where he came from.4. 表示请求、提议、建议或劝告等意义的疑问句直接引语如果是此类疑问句，变为间接引语时，可以变为动词不定式、v-ing形式或含虚拟语气的宾语从句。例如：“could you please tell me something about the trip?” david said to his sister. →david asked his sister to tell him something about the trip. “why don’t you buy one for yourself?” she asked. →she advised me to buy one for myself.→she suggested me buying one for myself. →she suggested/advised that i (should) buy one for myself. 5. 祈使句直接引语是祈使句，变为间接引语时，要将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式，并在不定式的前面根据句子的意思加上tell, ask, order等动词。如果祈使句为否定式，则在不定式的前面加not。例如： mrs. lee said to her, “please come here again tomorrow.” →mrs. lee asked her to go there again the next/following day. she said, “don’t touch my book, jack.” →she told jack not to touch her book. 6. 感叹句直接引语是感叹句，变为间接引语时，可以用what, how或that引导。 例如：“what a sunny day it is!” she said. →she said what a sunny day it was./she said that it was a sunny day. she said, “how aloud this student sings!” →she said how aloud that student sang./she said that student sang very aloud. 将直接引语变间接引语时，需要注意的问题041. 直接引语是客观事实、科学真理、谚语、习语、格言或为了表示引述的状态和情况到现在仍然是事实，变间接引语时，时态不变。例如：“where there is no trust, there is no love,” said our teacher. →our teacher said that where there is no trust, there is no love. her father said to them, “she is a good girl.”→her father told them she is a good girl.2. 直接引语中有表示过去某年、某月或某日等具体的时间作状语，变间接引语时，时态一般不变。例如：william said, “i was born in 1988.” →william said that he was born in 1988. 但当直接引语中有以since, while, when等引导的表示过去时间的状语从句，变间接引语时，状语从句中的一般过去时不变，但主句的谓语动词则要改为过去完成时。例如：she said, “i went there when i was ten years old.”→she said that she had gone there when she was ten years old. 3. 如果就在当地或当天转述，here不必变为there，动词come不必变为go；yesterday, tomorrow等时间状语也不必改变。例如： “just come here to wait for me after school,” said my mother. →my mother asked me to just come here to wait for her after school. “i am now a chinese citizen,” henry said proudly. →henry said proudly that he is now a chinese citizen.